Tesla automobile plugged in and charging a Supercharger rapid battery charging station for the electric vehicle company Tesla Motors, in the Silicon Valley town of Mountain View, California, August 24, 2016. (Photo by Smith Collection/Gado/Getty Images).
Electrification -- the addition of batteries and electric motors to a car's powertrain -- isn't just a niche idea anymore. What started with the original Honda Insight and Toyota Prius has grown to include vehicles of all shapes and sizes, with myriad technologies on board predominantly centered around one goal: Efficient, reduced-emissions driving. It's a great time to be shopping for these kinds of cars because there more to choose from and they're better than ever.
Hybrids and fully electric vehicles have a lot of other benefits, from federal, state and local tax incentives -- though those are starting to phase out for some brands -- to increased HOV lane access and much-reduced maintenance in the case of purely electric cars. There are downsides, of course, like the potential for expensive (if rare) battery-replacement costs.
With so many new types of electrified vehicles entering the market today, it's important to note the differences within this hugely important space. We'll break out the different types of electrified vehicles on the market below, explain their advantages and disadvantages, and present examples of each.
The new Mercedes-Benz CLS uses a 48-volt battery that functions as a mild hybrid system.
A mild hybrid system is the simplest and most cost-effective way of adding electric drivetrain components to a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE). In a mild hybrid system, the ICE will often shut itself off entirely under no-load conditions such as coasting down a hill or coming to a stop. The hybrid system allows the ICE to be restarted almost instantaneously and can power ancillary systems on the vehicle such as the stereo or air conditioning. Some mild hybrid systems will feature regenerative braking or will offer power-assist or torque-fill to the ICE, but all lack the ability to run solely on electric power.
The Toyota Prius is probably the most well-known example of a series hybrid.
The series hybrid -- also known as power split or parallel hybrid -- is what most people think of when they think of a hybrid vehicle. These use a downsized ICE to provide power at higher speeds and in higher load conditions, and a battery-electric system to move the vehicle at low speeds and low-load conditions. This allows the ICE to work in its ideal efficiency range, thus providing excellent fuel economy, especially in city driving conditions.
The Chrysler Pacifica is the first electrified minivan, and it happens to be a plug-in hybrid.
The plug-in hybrid is the next logical step forward from the series hybrid system. These cars move closer to the fully electric vehicle side of the continuum, with the ability to go longer distances on electric power alone. The plug-in part of their name comes from their ability to be plugged into an electric car charging station, rather than just relying on the ICE and regenerative braking for battery power, thus effectively eliminating range anxiety. Another area where plug-in hybrids differ from either mild hybrids or series hybrids is in the size of their battery pack. This is what gives them their extended EV-only range.
Every single Tesla model is a battery electric vehicle.
Battery electric vehicles are mostly what they sound like: A big battery with at least one electric drive motor wired to it. Oh, and tons of complex software to manage the thousands of individual cells that make up that big battery. Mechanically speaking, BEVs are the least complex of all the vehicles we're covering when you consider that even the simplest multi-cylinder internal combustion engine has many hundreds of moving parts, while an electric motor only has its rotor. Purely electric vehicles are becoming more and more common, thanks to innovation from relatively new companies like Tesla and industry stalwarts like General Motors and Nissan.
Honda's Clarity Fuel Cell is one of only a few fuel cell vehicles available for sale today.
A fuel cell takes hydrogen and oxidizes it to create an electrical charge, which is then channeled into a battery and used by electric motors. This technology has been around in automobiles for a few decades, but due to costs, size of components and a relative lack of infrastructure, there aren't many companies still working with it. Miniaturization of tech in the last few years has made hydrogen FCVs more commercially viable, and we're starting to see more interest from manufacturers like Honda and Hyundai.B:
0207【默】【默】【的】【闭】【嘴】【了】。 【乔】【可】【乍】【然】【间】【看】【到】【这】【么】【多】【蝙】【蝠】【也】【没】【有】【慌】，【手】【中】【一】【把】【重】【剑】【舞】【的】【虎】【虎】【生】【威】，【似】【乎】【完】【全】【感】【受】【不】【到】【剑】【的】【重】【量】【一】【般】，【脚】【下】【一】【堆】【蝙】【蝠】【尸】【体】【几】【乎】【将】【他】【周】【边】【的】【地】【毯】【铺】【满】，【全】【部】【是】【被】【拦】【腰】【斩】【断】【的】【惨】【状】。 【大】【厅】【内】【弥】【漫】【着】【丝】【丝】【缕】【缕】【的】【血】【腥】【气】。 【连】【明】【妩】【的】【生】【理】【都】【蠢】【蠢】【欲】【动】【了】【起】【来】。 【维】【拉】【德】【吸】【了】【吸】【鼻】【子】，【回】【头】
“【该】【死】！【这】【神】【火】【教】【老】【夫】【记】【住】【了】，【这】【般】【至】【宝】【老】【夫】【就】【算】【得】【不】【到】，【可】【也】【不】【能】【让】【神】【火】【教】【好】【过】！” “【对】！【等】【离】【开】【此】【地】，【便】【将】【神】【火】【教】【得】【到】【三】【件】【至】【宝】【的】【消】【息】【散】【播】【出】【去】，【我】【倒】【是】【要】【看】【一】【看】【这】【神】【火】【教】【究】【竟】【是】【何】【方】【神】【圣】，【能】【否】【扛】【得】【住】【来】【自】【四】【面】【八】【方】【的】【觊】【觎】！” …… “【前】【辈】，【戮】【神】【剑】【和】【通】【天】【台】【取】【来】【了】。” 【申】【齐】【云】【再】【度】【出】【现】【在】【宁】【川】
“【你】【还】【敢】【拦】【着】【本】【座】【不】【成】？！” 【听】【到】【萧】【灵】【龙】【的】【呼】【喝】，【王】【凉】【被】【吓】【了】【一】【跳】，【只】【是】【表】【面】【看】【起】【来】【很】【镇】【定】。 “【不】【但】【要】【拦】，【还】【要】【杀】。”【萧】【灵】【龙】【冷】【冷】【吐】【出】【几】【个】【字】。 “【你】！【你】【敢】！”【王】【凉】【背】【脊】【上】【全】【是】【冷】【汗】，【他】【从】【没】【和】【萧】【灵】【龙】【动】【过】【手】，【只】【是】【听】【过】【关】【于】【他】【的】【一】【些】【传】【言】，【说】【他】【乃】【是】【方】【圆】【百】【万】【公】【里】【内】，【同】【境】【界】【的】【最】【强】【者】。 【轰】！ 【萧】【灵】【龙】【也】【不】【拖】
【难】【道】……【渣】【渣】【龙】【还】【真】【的】【是】【财】【神】【转】【世】？ 【否】【则】【怎】【么】【解】【释】【龙】【叔】【叔】【那】【样】【憨】【厚】【老】【实】【的】【人】，【会】【把】【生】【意】【做】【大】【做】【强】？ 【而】【且】【龙】【华】【原】【本】【也】【只】【是】【有】【点】【小】【钱】【而】【已】，【后】【来】【龙】【家】【却】【成】【了】【全】【国】【首】【富】，【甚】【至】【在】【世】【界】【上】【都】【是】【数】【得】【上】【数】【的】。 【云】【初】【朵】【想】【了】【一】【下】，【上】【次】【在】【月】【合】【仙】【宫】【见】【到】【财】【神】【大】【佬】，【已】【经】【是】【很】【久】【以】【前】【的】【事】【情】【了】。 【他】【似】【乎】【是】【去】【月】【合】【仙】【宫】【找】
【老】【道】【苦】【笑】【一】【声】，【托】【着】【手】【里】【的】【补】【天】【石】，【无】【辜】【的】【看】【了】【看】【萧】【尘】。 【萧】【尘】【一】【脸】【坏】【笑】，【拉】【住】【要】【去】【敲】【人】【的】【猴】【哥】，【一】【指】【伍】【胖】【子】：“【猴】【哥】，【搞】【错】【人】【了】，【补】【天】【石】【是】【这】【胖】【子】【拿】【出】【来】【的】，【你】【要】【找】【他】。” 【伍】【胖】【子】【的】【脸】【色】【瞬】【间】【变】【成】【死】【灰】【色】，【一】【把】【抱】【住】【老】【道】【腿】，【大】【哭】【起】【来】：“【道】【祖】【救】【我】。” 【猴】【哥】【大】【怒】，【眼】【中】【金】【光】【暴】【闪】，【身】【形】【如】【大】【鹏】【一】【般】【跃】【起】，
【顾】【绍】【霆】【看】【着】【她】，【伸】【手】【替】【她】【梳】【理】【了】【那】【披】【肩】【长】【发】，【他】【喜】【欢】【她】【这】【样】【长】【发】【披】【肩】【的】【样】【子】，【很】【妩】【媚】，【有】【女】【人】【味】。 【可】【是】【她】【现】【在】【因】【为】【工】【作】【的】【缘】【故】，【喜】【欢】【把】【头】【发】【刻】【板】【地】【绑】【在】【脑】【后】【面】【了】，【好】【几】【次】【看】【到】，【他】【都】【想】【抽】【掉】【她】【的】【橡】【皮】【筋】。 “【嗯】，【有】【什】【么】【事】【情】【要】【和】【我】【说】，【毕】【竟】【我】【是】【你】【的】【丈】【夫】。”【顾】【绍】【霆】【轻】【描】【淡】【写】【地】【说】【到】。 “【好】，【我】【知】【道】【了】。”